1. Pain and culture are both nebulous terms which are difficult to define authoritatively. However, they are both important considerations in the provision of health care. 2. Pain can be categorised as either short term, such as that experienced after surgery or a mishap, or as chronic or persistent pain which is defined as "continuous pain for most days of the week for the last three months" (NSW Health, n.d.). 3. Culture has an impact on attitudes to health and well-being, yet culture is generally ‘invisible’ in communication between a patient and the nurse. 4. Culture is the “set of attitudes, values, beliefs and behaviours shared by a group of people and communicated from one generation to the next via language” (Barnouw, 1985 cited in Matsumoto, 1997, p.5). 5. While cultural factors are undoubtedly important, they are not the only major considerations in treating patients with persistent pain since research indicates that genetics, social, environmental and psychological factors may also affect the way patients experience pain and how they respond to treatment.
1. Provides a brief orientation to topic of the essay question.
2 & 4 defining terms.
5. "While cultural factors are undoubtedly important, they are not the only major considerations in treating patients with persistent pain" (thesis statement).
5. "research indicates that genetics, social, environmental and psychological factors may also affect the way patients experience pain and how they respond to treatment" (summary of main points).
3. This sentence functions as a transition to the definition of culture but also contains elements of thesis: "yet culture is generally 'invisible’ in communication between a patient and the nurse".
Breastfeeding allows you and your baby to emotionally bond in a special way that cannot be matched, since breastfeeding meets both the nutritional and nurturing needs. Nursing is a learned skill for both mother and baby that requires time and patience.
Your breast milk
Breast milk provides many health benefits and is the ideal first food for your baby. For the first six months of life, the American Academy of Pediatrics, (AAP) recommends only breastfeeding your baby, unless there are specific medical reasons to give other foods or liquids. Only breastfeeding means just that. No other liquids or foods should be given to your baby, including water, sugar water, juice, formula, soups, rice cereal or pureed foods.
Check with your baby’s health care provider for advice about giving your baby vitamins or minerals and when to add other liquids and foods to your baby's diet.
While you were pregnant, your body was preparing a very special blend of nutrients to meet your baby’s needs. Colostrum (early breast milk) is the perfect starter food for your baby. This yellowish, creamy substance is found in the breasts during pregnancy and for a few days after delivery. Your colostrum provides all the nutrition your baby will need right after birth. It also provides important protection against bacteria and viruses. Colostrum acts as natural laxative (something that makes it easier to have bowel movements) to help clear the meconium (the dark sticky stool that is made while the baby is in the uterus) from your baby’s intestines.
The amount of breast milk you make will increase over the first few days after birth. Breast milk is the perfect balance of water and nutrients containing fats, sugars, proteins, minerals, vitamins, antibodies and enzymes. It is also designed to promote brain and body growth. As your baby grows older, your milk changes to meet your baby’s nutritional needs.
Breastfeeding also allows you and your baby to bond in a way that cannot be matched by bottle feeding. Breastfeeding meets both your baby’s nutritional and nurturing needs.
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Benefits of breastfeeding for your baby
- Breastfeeding provides frequent, close physical contact and helps mother and baby become better acquainted.
- Antibodies from the mother are passed through the milk giving breastfed babies greater resistance to infection, such as respiratory viruses. This protection cannot be duplicated by formula, which contains no human antibodies.
- Breast milk is absorbed quickly and causes less stomach upset, constipation and diarrhea than formula.
- Breastfed babies are less likely to develop allergies.
- Breastfeeding may decrease the chance of your baby developing ear infections, diabetes, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis later in life.
- Breastfeeding reduces the chance of some childhood cancers, such as lymphomas.
- Breastfeeding reduces the chance of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.
- Breastfeeding enhances the development of oral muscles and facial bones.
- Breastfeeding may reduce the risk of childhood obesity .
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Benefits of breastfeeding for you
- Breastfeeding after giving birth causes contractions of the uterus, which helps prevent heavy bleeding. During the six weeks after birth, the uterus continues to contract and shrink back to its pre-pregnancy size.
- Breastfeeding is economical. You do not have the added cost of formula and supplies (approximately $1,600 per year for formula alone).
- Breastfeeding is more convenient. There is nothing to mix, measure, wash or prepare.
- Breastfeeding may help you return to your pre-pregnancy weight sooner than if not breastfeeding, especially if you nurse your baby for six months.
- Breastfeeding delays the return of menstruation. (Talk with your health care provider about birth control.)
- Breastfeeding triggers the release of the hormone Prolactin, known as the “mothering hormone,” which promotes a feeling of relaxation and well-being.
- Prolactin also promotes a deeper sleep, which enables you to feel more rested in a shorter amount of time.
- Research shows that breastfeeding reduces the risks of breast and ovarian cancer and may reduce the risk of osteoporosis.
- Breastfeeding helps mothers miss less work because their babies get sick less often.
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American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines
The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) promotes the following breastfeeding guidelines:
- Breastfeed during the first hour after delivery.
- No supplements (such as water, glucose water or formula) should be given to breastfeeding newborns unless needed because of a medical condition.
- Newborns should be fed whenever they show signs of hunger, such as increased alertness or activity, mouthing or rooting. Crying is a late sign of hunger.
- Feed the baby only breast milk for the first six months of life so your baby receives the ideal nutrition that supports optimal growth and development.
- A trained observer should evaluate breastfeeding within 24 to 48 hours after delivery and at a follow-up visit 48 to 72 hours after mother and baby leave the hospital.
- Expressing and storing breast milk are encouraged, so the baby can receive the stored breast milk instead of formula at times the mother and baby have to be apart.
- Breastfeeding is recommended for the first 12 months of life or longer if the mother and baby want to continue.
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