How to Build a Computer
...How to build a computer 1. Choosing a motherboard: There many different types of motherboards to choose from they all depend on: -What kind of processor you want -What size motherboard do you want to use -How many USB ports will you need. -What kind of graphics card will you be using. 2. Buying computer parts: you can order parts by mail or buy them at the store (although online is cheaper) CPU: Choosing the right brand and pin configuration to fit your motherboard/ RAM: Correct pin configuration that will match your mother board Power Supply: If the case you choose doesn't include a power supply you'll need to choose one. 300 watts is sufficient for the average computer. Video Card: choose a video card if you're not using the onboard video that comes with the motherboard. Optical Drive: CD/DVD drive and or burner Hard Drive: PATA or SATA depending on your motherboatd Operating System: There's a lot to choose from the latest is windows 7. 3. Installing the RAM and Microprocessor Caution: BEFORE this is done make sure you've relieved yourself of all sources of static electricity. Easiest way to do this is by grounding yourself. First, you'll need to unwrap the motherboard and the microprocessor chip. The chip will have one marked corner that aligns with another marked corner of its socket on the motherboard. You don't need to apply any pressure - if it's aligned correctly, it should fall into place. Once you have it in, cinch it down with the lever arm.......
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How to Build a Powerful Network
...Article – The real way to build a social network Reid Hoffman and Ben Casnocha This article is from the February 6, 2012 issue of Fortune. “Networking” is a very common word now-a-days. It is not only about what you know, but it is also about who you know. Reid Hoffman is a partner at Greylock and founder and executive chairman at LinkedIn Ben Casnocha is an award-winning entrepreneur and author. The article talks about building a social network. It tells about building a relationship with others requires two important abilities. First, one should be able to see the world from other perspective. Second, one should be able to collaborate with other by helping them and not by thinking what he/she would get in return. Keith Ferrazzi, author, New York Times #1 bestsellers, Who's Got Your Back and Never Eat Alone quotes: “The currency of real networking is not greed but generosity.” The article then goes on and describe the ways in which one can diversify and strength his/her network. The author describes that the best way to increase the efficiency of your network is by strengthening your relationship with people who you already have in your network. The article also talks about the weak ties and how they can help you increase the effectiveness of your network. Weak ties are normally outside one’s inner circle and hence have a greater probability to give new information that your close relationship might not. The article then goes on to talk about the three degree of......
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How to Build a House
...The proper way to build a house By Jeremiah Archambault Homes today is what is needed in everyone’s existence, and range from being as simple as a tent or shelter of branches and leaves, and all the way up to a multi-story palace with several bedroom and bathrooms to your basic single story home. Whatever the structure may be it provides shelter and simplifies one’s life. Here are the proper steps involved to successfully construct a home. Selecting a location for your house has several items to consider before the construction begins. You should consider the climate, ground stability, availability of utilities, community infrastructure, and available building materials. When looking at the climate of the site one needs to make sure they are not in a flood plain, and also taking in to consideration of the temperature that the house will be built in whether it is intense heat to frigid cold. Ground stability is making sure that the soil is suitable. If the soil is mucky, shifting sand or other unstable earth will likely fall over a short period of time unless they are not built on special foundations or pilings. The availability of utilities is also important if you intend to have power, potable water, telephone and other conveniences, make sure these utility providers offer them at the location. The community infrastructure is also important to look at. Make sure good quality schools are available. Check to see if you are in a police jurisdiction to protect you from......
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How to Build Up Self-Confidence
...Undoubtedly, self-confidence plays such an important role in people’s life that someone with self-confidence is more likely to succeed even though confronting with a difficult situation while people feeling inferior to others can lose chances that they could have got. Then, many people would ask, how to build up self-confidence exactly? I should tell those people for certain that there is no absolute or exact solution to the problem of lacking self-confidence. For people who are unconfident have different reasons to feel inferior. Therefore the first thing is to figure out who you are and why you are not confident about yourself. For those who are born pessimistic, they should try to look at the good side and always give themselves optimistic hints like seeing the glass half full instead of half empty. For those who are experiencing defeat for the moment, it’s quite normal to doubt themselves and ask the question “Do I make the right choice at the beginning?” But the truth is, those obstacles are what you must learn to deal with on your road to success. So for now all you need is to get some rest and calm down to analyze how come the failure. With some adjustment, you’ll find your confidence and passion in your work soon. By saying rest, I mean traveling, reading a wonderful book, anything that suits you best. I used to be very unconfident. Throwing my mind back to my middle school time, I once was too afraid or say, too unconfident to stand in front of the class to answer......
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How to Build Career
...“How to build a career?” from the view of Successful Businessman Mike Dolan Dolan spoke to students in Financial Markets and Institutions, a summer class taught by Enzo DiCostanzo, an adjunct professor of finance. DiCostanzo is a Newark native, a 1993 graduate from the Newark College of Engineering and an economic advisor at Samarian Group. Dolan is vice president at Samarian Group, in Manhattan, where he’s responsible for business development and client relations and a partner in Wealth Management firm Princeton Blazer Advisors. He came to Samarian from Voyager Group, a private equity investment firm, where he was responsible for government relations and business development. He also served as vice president for Voyager Jet Center, a private aviation company servicing clients in the sports and entertainment industries. Dolan spoke to the class for a half hour about his career and his education at Penn State, and then took questions. College is the time to learn new skills and to work well in teams, said Dolan. One should also study what one is passionate about, he added. When he first entered Penn State, he studied the sciences because he was good at them. But he soon realized he was passionate about marketing, so he switched his major to business. Many of the students in the class are athletes, and they asked Dolan about the roles of competition, networking and deal making in the business world. Dolan said that athletes often make good business people because......
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How to Build a Box
...What is the main advantage of the layered approach to system design? What are the disadvantages of using the layered approach? Answer: As in all cases of modular design, designing an operating system in a modular way has several advantages. The system is easier to debug and modify because changes affect only limited sections of the system rather than touching all sections of the operating system. Information is kept only where it is needed and is accessible only within a defined and restricted area, so any bugs affecting that data must be limited to a specific module or layer. 2.9 List five services provided by an operating system. Explain how each provides convenience to the users. Explain also in which cases it would be impossible for user-level programs to provide these services. Answer: a. Program execution. The operating system loads the contents (or sections) of a file into memory and begins its execution. A user- level program could not be trusted to properly allocate CPU time. b. I/O operations. Disks, tapes, serial lines, and other devices must be communicated with at a very low level. The user need only specify the device and the operation to perform on it, while the system converts that request into device- or......
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How Build a Bear
...Why painful the sixteen how minuter looking nor. Subject but why ten earnest husband imagine sixteen brandon. Are unpleasing occasional celebrated motionless unaffected conviction out. Evil make to no five they. Stuff at avoid of sense small fully it whose an. Ten scarcely distance moreover handsome age although. As when have find fine or said no mile. He in dispatched in imprudence dissimilar be possession unreserved insensible. She evil face fine calm have now. Separate screened he outweigh of distance landlord. Consulted perpetual of pronounce me delivered. Too months nay end change relied who beauty wishes matter. Shew of john real park so rest we on. Ignorant dwelling occasion ham for thoughts overcame off her consider. Polite it elinor is depend. His not get talked effect worthy barton. Household shameless incommode at no objection behaviour. Especially do at he possession insensible sympathize boisterous it. Songs he on an widen me event truth. Certain law age brother sending amongst why covered. Affronting everything discretion men now own did. Still round match we to. Frankness pronounce daughters remainder extensive has but. Happiness cordially one determine concluded fat. Plenty season beyond by hardly giving of. Consulted or acuteness dejection an smallness if. Outward general passage another as it. Very his are come man walk one next. Delighted prevailed supported too not remainder perpetual who furnished. Nay affronting bed projection compliment......
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The Sochi Olympics: Castles in the Sand
...The Sochi Olympics: Castles in the Sand “Castles in the Sand” is an article written by The Economist, a British publication. This article, published on July 13, 2013, argues that in many ways Sochi is an odd choice for the winter games and there is a lot of corruption. The Sochi Olympics is a gigantic construction site where 70,000 workers from every corner of the old Soviet Union dig, lift, pull and churn day and night. I would like to talk about few points about this article, my first point is location, second corruption, and lastly cost. Sochi Olympics was a bad choice of location, I agree with The Economist view, the International Olympic Committee should bring people to another safer place. According to The Economist Sochi an odd choice for the winter games. The place, for the Sochi Olympics game is close to the black sea this is an environment contaminated, this environment can sicken to the people. “Sochi is also worrying”, because to the north Caucasus, a predominantly Muslim part of Russia, had a civil conflict for two decades ago. Sochi is becoming the capital of the Caucasus, former Turkic poorest province, Olympics game should be removed to other place, north Caucasus does not include a nationwide security operation to protect the venue against attack, also the Sochi game need more security, to protect the life of people. The government should be security operation to protect to the place, also everybody who attend to Olympics Game. ...
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How to Build a Pc
...CMIT 202 PC Build Project Customer Request for a PC Scenario You work at a small computer shop and have received a request from a customer for a brand new PC. The customer has an older computer that no longer meets the customer’s desires, and he wants to replace it. The new computer must be built from the ground up (no pre-built computers from an online company) and meet all of the customer requirements, as detailed below. * Form Factor * The customer has small children who may accidentally damage a smaller form factor. * The customer has heard about Carpal Tunnel Syndrome and wants to have a system that minimizes this. * The customer would like a high resolution screen but since he doesn’t have 20/20 vision anymore, he doesn’t want to have things appear small on the screen. * Entertainment * The customer wants to be able to watch and record television on their computer. * The customer wants to be able to watch DVD and Blu-Ray movies on the computer. * The customer wants to be able to scan, upload, edit, and print photographs and videos. * The customer already has a digital camera available to him and would like to be able to easily transfer photos from the memory card of his camera to his computer (his camera is using SDHC card) * The customer has family on the opposite coast and wants to be able to have video chats with them regularly. * The customer would like to have two monitors because that’s...
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How to Build a Dream Team
...How to build a dream team? CM1: 1) I felt a little bit embarrassed and I didn’t know what to do 2) I felt blocked and not free of my actions 3) It was the best one because event if we were not talking we were doing the moves together, there were no leader Maybe I need to show more my believes and my decisions I need to understand that being a leader is not just giving directions it is about sharing IQ => knowledge, analysis, technique, strategy EQ => relationship: motivation, stress CM2: Reward try, not succeed or fail Sometimes I win Sometimes I learn 4 steps to express and feel the emotions: Keeping the emotions and not expressing them can be dangerous. It will come up somehow. It is the 5 senses Visual => Lemon Auditif/ Listening => the little musique Kinesthesique / Touching Odorat/ Smell Goût / Taste Assertive => saying things directly I + … 1) Manipulation 2) Aggressive 3) Avoidance From the P to the EQ/R: Me, other, team, change PHQ: physical Physiological laws: how does the body works, hormones. Reinforcement: how to reinforce your body? Resistance level Recovery The red part of the energy: thinking, stress, conflicts, angry, disturb, still. The green part: 1) Sleep (40%) 2) Nutriments (20%) oxygen is also a nutriment 3) Physical activities 4) Social contacts 5) Leisure (passive and active) 6) Psychological satisfaction 7) Laugh We are worth our weakest......
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How to Build Relations
...application developer might choose to run an application over UDP rather than TCP. Give examples of such applications. 3. Why is it that voice and video traffic is often sent over TCP rather than UDP in today’s Internet? (Hint: not because of TCP’s congestion-control mechanism) 4. Is it possible for an application to enjoy reliable data transfer even when the application runs over UDP? If so, how? 5. A process in Host C has a UDP socket with port number 6789. Host A and B each send a UDP segment to Host C with destination port number 6789. Will both of these segments be directed to the same socket at Host C? How will the process at Host C know that these two segments originated from two different hosts? 6. To provide reliability in a transport layer, why do we need sequence numbers? Why do we need timers? Will a timer still be required if the RTT between sender and destination is constant? 7. Consider the Telnet example discussed in the figure below. A few seconds after the user types the letter ‘C,’ the user types the letter ‘R.’ After typing the letter ‘R.’ how many segments are sent, and what is put in the sequence number and acknowledgement fields of the segments? (6 points) [pic] 8. Consider a reliable data transfer protocol that uses only negative acknowledgements. Suppose the sender sends data only infrequently. Would a NAK-only protocol be preferable to a protocol that uses ACKs? Why? Now suppose the sender has a lot of data to send......
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How to Build a Pc
...How to Build a PC: Part 1 Abstract 5 STEPS TO FOLLOW IF SOMEONE IS THE VICTIM OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK 1. DO NOT GRAB OR PULL INDIVIDUAL 2. TURN OFF ELECTRICAL POWER, ONLY IF POSSIBLE AND IF IT WILL NOT BE HARMFUL TO YOURSELF 3. IF YOU CANNOT TURN OF POWER, PUSH OR PULL INDIVIDUAL WITH WOODEN STICK 4. CALL FOR HELP IMMEDIATELY 5. AFTER INDIVIDUAL IS FREE OF CONTACT, MOVE IMMEDIATELY AND BEGIN LIFE SAVING TECHNIQUES WARNING HIGH VOLTAGE High voltage is used in this equipment. Be careful when working with AC power distribution. Observe warnings in technical manual and warning decals on all equipment. Death may occur if warnings are not observed. WARNING DEATH ON CONTACT Never work on electronic equipment unless there is another person nearby who is familiar with the operation and hazards of the equipment and who is competent in administering first aid. When the technicians are aided by operators, they must be warned about dangerous areas. Whenever possible, the power supply to the equipment must be shut off before beginning work on the equipment. Take particular care to ground every capacitor likely to hold a dangerous potential. When working inside the equipment, after the power has been turned off, always ground every part before touching it. Be careful not to contact high-voltage connections or 115 VAC input connections when installing or operating this......
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How to Build a Sand Castle
...101: EB 09 Aug. 2011 .How To Build a Sand Castle For young and old alike, a trip to the beach means relaxation, adventure, and a temporary escape from the worries and responsibilities of ordinary life. Whether swimming or surfing, playing volleyball or snoozing in the sand, a visit to the beach means fun. Making sand castles is a project for beachgoers of all ages. Some castles are very elaborate while others are plain. “Why spend money on clay when you can use beach sand for free?” (How to Build a Sand Castle) Move this quote into a supporting paragraph. Quotes cannot be inserted in the introductory – or concluding – paragraphs. Remember your thesis statement must be in your own words, too. Is this meant to be your thesis? Be sure to create a sentence in your own words which encompasses the WHOLE main idea/purpose of your paper. The only equipment needed in the process of creating a sand castle is a twelve inch deep bucket, a small plastic shovel, carving tools, and an abundance of moist sand. If carving tools are unavailable, a plastic kitchen knife will work, however a pastry knife with a squared off end is preferred. Begin using the plastic shovel, by digging up a large amount of sand (enough to fill at least six buckets) and arranging it in a pile near your chosen work site. “Choose a square site that is close to the water, but not so close that waves will destroy the castle as the tide comes up.” (Sand Castle Tips & Tricks) Then, scoop the wet sand into your pail......
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How to Build Good Credit
...higher (money.msn.com, 2010). A. Fair Isaac, the credit rating agency behind the FICO score says that 13% of Americans have credit scores of 800 or better (money.msn.com, 2010). Ask yourself is your credit score near that lofty mark? B. If not, today I’m going to talk about some steps such as credit reports, how to stabilize your credit profile, the reason why lenders say “no”, and also improvement in your credit scores. (Transition: Now I’m going to talk about credit reports.) II. The top 3 credit bureau are Equifax, Trans-Union, and Experian (bankrate.com, 2008). A. You will need a credit reports from each of them, because creditor doesn’t have to report to all three credit bureaus. (bankrate.com, 2008). B. Look for errors on your credit reports such as information about you is out of date or just plain wrong (bankrate.com, 2008 C. Accounts histories can be inaccurate, and sometimes people make typing mistakes (bankrate.com, 2008). D. If there are some errors you see on your credit report you can use the dispute form to report mistakes or write a letter detailing them (bankrate.com, 2008). (Transition: Now I’m going to talk about how to stabilize your credit profile.) III. Yet over time, credit generally gives more weight to the consistency of credit payment then to disruptive events. So consistency is key. A. Plan to solve any immediate crises in your finical life. As for debts, pays off the smallest first, then the next smallest and......
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Discuss How Castles Sees Mulitculturalism
...“Discuss how Castles Multiculturalism” The emergence of multiculturalism as prominent term in Western discourse concerning ethnic diversity, conflict and management coincides with increasing awareness in the Western industrial societies, especially over the last two decades, that ethnic groups had not lost their saliency in the lives of large numbers of people. Their earlier perceptions about such a loss of saliency coincides with the 19th century emergence of modern-industrial states, where social theorists such as Durkheim, Weber and Marx, theorised that status based social differentiation was replaced by the social class as the driving force in society. Ethnicity and racial differences were viewed as surviving anachronisms, dating from pre-modern, traditional societies. This analysis was shared by social commentators and policy-makers who operated with an often implicit view that assimilation of minority groups had either occurred, or was in progress. The trend towards global cultural homogenisation, typified by the metaphor of the "global village ", presaged a quickening of this type of development. Even in those industrial nations such as Australia, Canada or the USA which continued to receive large numbers of immigrants, assimilation was viewed as the inevitable process. By the 1960s, the ethnic rights movement and unrest in a number of the Western industrial countries led to increased questioning of assumptions that ethnic differences were of declining......
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1. The basics
The list of ingredients for creating a simple sandcastle is misleadingly short: sand, water and a few digging and carving tools.
The first and most important thing you need to know about sand is that you can't do a thing with it unless it's wet. Here's why: when you add water to grains of sand, the liquid forms "bridges" that connect the granules to one another. This is why damp sand sticks together, so you can shape and carve it.
Packing down or "tamping" wet sand drains more water more quickly, creating even shorter bridges and an even more solid clump. Sand that has been compacted in this way can be subjected to extreme carving.
1 Use lots of water. Dry sand in its natural state is lazy stuff. It wants to lie down and spread out into all sorts of nooks and crannies. The good news is that as long as you keep gravity working for you, there is really no way to add too much water. Which brings us to our second rule.
2 Let it drain. If you've ever tried to make the base of a sandcastle by filling a plastic bucket with wet sand and then trying to unmould it, you've seen how important this rule is. With no place for the excess water to drain off, the sand makes a sucking, sticking, vacuum seal with the plastic and it becomes difficult, if not impossible, to remove the bucket.
This is why successful sand sculptors do not use plastic buckets or other closed moulds but build their shapes by stacking handfuls of wet sand or by tamping it down in a topless and bottomless form.
3 Compact the wet sand to form structures. "Pounding sand into submission" is an intuitive and time-honoured method of strengthening and tightening those bridges that hold the grains together. You can use your hands or feet, or even a tamper, to compact wet sand.
Dig a water hole
If you're building at the beach, the best way to obtain an unlimited supply of H2O is by digging a self-replenishing water hole. Start digging.
Keep digging until you hit water. Don't worry about how wide the hole is – you're aiming for depth, not width. The hole will get wider as you pull wet sand from its depths. Keep in mind that you're digging a well here, not a moat. When the water starts puddling at the bottom of your hole, you can stop digging.
The fail-safe recipe for castle concrete is one part sand to one part water. Pour the water in the big bucket first, then shovel in the dry sand for easier blending. Mix thoroughly and you're ready to scoop.
Pile the sand you excavate for your water hole into a mound about 1ft from the edge of the hole. Pack your mound of sand into a round, level base that is 2-3ft in diameter. This will serve as the foundation for your castle, giving you some added height and providing drainage for all the water you're going to use in construction.
2. The Equipment
You can, of course, dig, shape, smooth and even carry water with nothing but your own two hands. But having the right equipment will make your sandcastling experience infinitely more pleasurable. Here are the essentials:
A long-handled, lightweight shovel
If your goal is to achieve any kind of altitude – and it is! – you're going to do some serious digging. If you have the opportunity to bring or buy one object, make it a shovel, ideally a long-handled model with a small scoop. The sand-sculpture task that feels the most like work is digging the hole and mounding up the sand. A little garden spade is better than nothing.
A bucket or two
If you can't dig down to water you'll need at least two buckets: one to mix the sand and water in and one to carry water.
You could probably find most of these buried in kitchen drawers and toolboxes. Smoothing and shaping tools: at a minimum, find yourself an old kitchen (or plastic) knife with the tip broken off. For basic shaping, almost anything with a thin blade and straight edge will work such as putty knives, paint scrapers and trowels. The best all-round shaping tool for your kit is something with an offset handle. A pastry knife with a squared-off end (they usually come rounded) is ideal. Finishing tools: at a minimum, find yourself a soft-bristled paintbrush and a plastic drinking straw. The brush will come in handy for smoothing surfaces and the straw works well for blowing loose sand out of detailed carving. In an emergency, you can make a pretty good set of tools out of plastic eating utensils.
3. The building methods
1 – Soft-packing
Soft-packing is how the majority of the uninitiated approach sand.
Step 1 Mound up a big pile of sand.
Step 2 Stabilise the pile. Using the long handle of your shovel, poke a lot of deep holes into the pile then pour buckets of water into the holes. Stomp on the pile until it feels very solid beneath you. If necessary, go back and poke more holes and add more water.
Step 3 Pack and shape. Working from the tallest element in your composition, pack the shape with your hands until it feels stable. Take handfuls of moist sand, push them into place and roughly shape them.
Step 4 Carve and smooth. Using your smoothing tool, smooth and define the elements of your composition.
Step 5 Moisten as necessary. The longer you work on your composition, the more your sand sculpture will dry out – you must keep it moist.
Step 6 Keep pushing and smoothing.
Step 7 Work your way down the pile.
2 – Hand-stacking
When you're tired of crawling around a soft-packed sculpture on your hands and knees, you will be ready to try hand-stacking. It takes practice but once you master the mix-scoop-plop-flatten-jiggle move, you'll be building the best castles on the beach. The method is just a modified dribble technique using larger handfuls of sand – very large, very wet handfuls.
Hand-stacking involves scooping out handfuls of wet sand and helping them settle into each other in order to form structures. It's the only building technique in which you mix the sand and water in advance. With soft-packing, you start moulding with dry sand and then add water.
The most difficult aspect of hand-stacking is that it's less intuitive than soft-packing; many people have an instinctual urge to pound the sand into submission. Hand-stacking is a great way to involve the whole family in a sand-sculpture project, with duties evenly divided between "stackers" and "carvers".
Step 1 Mix. Use your hands – and even your feet – to mix up the compacted sand at the bottom of the hole. Properly mixed sand has the consistency of cake batter. It is very important to keep the wet sand moving as you build. Sand is heavier than water and, left alone for more than a few minutes, will sink to the bottom of the hole. So repeat the mixing step every time you start another structure.
Step 2 Scoop. You will soon find that big, fat things are easier to carve then little, skinny things, so build big. To do this, you need big handfuls of sand. You do not need big hands to get big handfuls if you scoop properly.
Step 3 Plop. With one smooth, swift motion (so that you don't lose too much water), plop the double handful of sand on to your base. There may be a bit of "pouring", but a common error to avoid is the "slam dunk". The taller and more delicate your structure is, the more gently you should plop. If you are building a tower, keep your hands on top of the sand; if you are building a wall, your hands will go directly to the sides.
Step 4 Jiggle. Very gently, jiggle the new pile of sand. Your goal is to get a thin, flat layer of very wet sand to melt into the layer beneath it. The common urge is to force this to happen by pounding, packing and pummelling the sand into compliance. Resist. Instead of using brute force, jiggle or vibrate the sand, helping it to settle evenly on to the layer beneath. Wet sand wants to flow downwards, and as long as you keep it moving, it will continue to settle in on itself, becoming denser and filling in spaces.
Almost as important as understanding how to jiggle is knowing when to stop. When the sand has stopped flowing, further jiggling will form cracks in your structure. Don't jiggle sand that has already settled into place.
4. The building blocks
There are three basic building units in a hand-stacked castle: the tower, the wall and the arch. Once you have mastered all three, you will be able to combine them into an endless variety of shapes and permutations.
Once you have discovered the joy of attaining altitude, there will be no looking back. A tower is just a big stack of sand pancakes; your only limit is your reach. Remember, the more water you keep in the sand, the longer your tower will last. Remember also that a larger (in diameter) base will help you build higher, carve more easily and leave you with more options.
Step 1 Position yourself at the edge of your water hole, close to the pile of sand that will serve as your foundation. This foundation should already be well packed and have a flat surface.
Step 2 Mix the sand and water in the bottom of the hole until the sand flows.
Step 3 Scoop up a big double handful of sand, keeping your hands together and pointed towards your stomach.
Step 4 Plop/pour the sand on to the foundation, immediately flattening it with your palms by applying firm pressure. Keep working the sand with a steady jiggling action. Aim for a patty 20-30cms in diameter. Note: speed is key here. If you hesitate, the water will run through and the sand will be frozen in place.
Step 5 While the sand is still moving, put your hands on the edges of the sand pancake and continue vibrating the sand. Once the water has run through and the sand is no longer moving, stop. Don't pound on your sand pancakes; let water and gravity do the compacting. Only jiggle freshly placed wet sand. Once the water has run through, the pancake becomes fixed in place. If you jiggle it you will break the bonds that are holding it together.
Repeat Continue scooping out fresh handfuls of sand and flattening them into pancakes. You will apply less downward pressure and spend more time jiggling the edges with each successive layer. Also, as you attain altitude, you will want to make each pancake slightly smaller than the one under it, so that the new pancake doesn't slop over the sides of the one being plopped upon.
As your tower gets higher, resist the temptation to "work" the sand too much. Feel free to flatten the first three or four pancakes that form the base of your tower; you want them to spread. But when your tower is about five layers tall, start easing up on the pressure. By the time your tower is 1ft high, you should be applying almost no downward pressure at all – gently cup the sides of these top pancakes between your palms and jiggle just enough to help settle them on to the stack. The top layers don't need to be jiggled at all, just plopped – gently.
When the tower starts looking precarious, it's a good sign it's time to stop, mix up the sand in your hole and then start another tower right next to the first one. Then build another, and another, and then one more, and by this time you should have a good feel for tower-building. Now you're ready to break out the carving tools.
Walls are an important architectural element you can use to connect towers, create a staircase, or encircle a castle. You can cut tunnels into walls, or you can carve your name on one.
The basic wall-building technique differs only a little bit from tower-building. Instead of flattening the wet sand into pancakes, form it into bricks. After mixing, scooping and plopping down a very large handful of wet sand, reposition your hands to the sides of the blob and jiggle until the wet sand fills the space between your hands. For the best results, keep your hands flat, palms inwards and parallel to one another, 7-12cms apart. Keep up the vibrating motion until the top settles into a smooth, flat surface. Your first walls will be small, as they will connect the towers you have already built.
Step 1 Mix the sand at the bottom of the hole.
Step 2 Pull a double handful of wet sand from the hole.
Step 3 Plop the sand into the space between two of your towers. Let it fall as far down as it will go, then quickly position your hands on either side and jiggle the sand to help it settle in even deeper. (Don't jiggle the towers!)
After you have created one brick, try placing another on top of it. Repeat this process until all of your towers are connected by walls.
The ancient Romans knew the secret to building arches – use a keystone, the single block of stone at the apex of the arch which holds the entire structure together. Arches look hard, but you'd be surprised at how simple they are to make. You might want to experiment first with tunnelling through a wall. Then give arch-building a try.
Step 1 Start building two tower bases fairly close (7-12cms) to each other.
Step 2 When you reach the height where you want the arch to begin, scoop a handful of wet sand, and …
Step 3 … positioning your other hand as a support next to one tower, plop your handful and jiggle so that it slops over the edge in the direction of the other tower.
Step 4 Do the same thing on the other tower.
Step 5 Continue working back and forth between the two towers, bringing the ends closer together. Don't try to build straight across; you have to build upwards, partially supporting each layer on the layer below.
Step 6 When the ends are very close, join them with the keystone – one final plop of wet sand that holds the arch together.
Step 7 Add layers of sand pancakes to the top of the arch until you reach the desired thickness. Keep the supporting hand underneath. Don't try to pack or force the sand into place; just jiggle the liquid sand to where you want it.
A few tips for a great arch:
1 Beginners should keep towers close together at first. Once you have mastered the technique you will be able to span larger areas.
2 Don't try to pack or compress sand – let it flow.
3 When you succeed in building a sturdy arch, try building a small tower at the top of the arch.
4 To build a really big arch you'll need more support underneath in the form of a spare set of hands or some kind of structure, such as the side of a bucket covered with dry sand (for drainage).
Now it's time to put it all together. One tower by itself does not a castle make. Build multiple towers on your base, then join them together with walls, staircases and bridges.
After you have built one tower, build another joined to the first with a gracefully arched bridge.
Step 1 Pack a level base for the second tower close to that of the first. It helps if your first tower has a balcony or ledge to anchor your bridge.
Step 2 Stack your second tower to the height of the first tower's balcony.
Step 3 Using your hand for support, plop a very large handful of wet sand between the two towers.
Step 4 Jiggle to help the sand settle.
Step 5 Hold in place until the water has run through, then (gently) pull the supporting hand free.
Step 6 Continue building your second tower, being very careful not to apply too much pressure on the top.
Now that you've built some walls and towers it's time to pretty them up. Here are some basic rules:
1 Always work from the highest point down. Otherwise loose sand will mess up already carved surfaces.
2 As you carve, little mounds of dry sand will pile up in low-lying areas; you need to keep brushing that it away to get to the firmer, wet-packed sand.
3 Whenever possible, hold your knife at the same angle at which you are cutting, so that it smooths and shaves the surface.
4 Try not to saw or hack away at the sand; use long, smooth strokes.
5 Carve conservatively. Once sand has been carved away there is no easy way to put it back.
• Extracted from Sandcastles Made Simple by Lucinda Wierenga, published by Stewart, Tabori & Chang priced £6.99.