The question of the transition of the letter to the Latin is very complicated. It requires a comprehensive study based on the experience of developing the language factor in the countries of the East
The greatest invention of the people is writing. Its origin is one of the complex problems of modern linguistics. The basis of modern writing is the ancient letter. The writing of the peoples of Central Asia and Kazakhstan arose in the early Middle Ages. The ancient Turkic peoples, who later became ancestors, including modern Kazakhs, played an important role in the history of Eurasia. And the Turkic language from the 5th to the 15th century was the language of interethnic communication for the most part. For example, with the Mongolian khans Batyi and Munke all official documents in the Golden Horde, international correspondence, besides the Mongolian, were also conducted in the Turkic language.
The formation and development of a language close to the modern Kazakh language took place in the 13th-14th centuries. One of the oldest types of letter script is the ancient Turkic script, which arose in the 6th-7th centuries.
One of the early monuments of such writing was discovered in 1896-1897 in Kazakhstan near Aulie-Ata (now the city of Taraz). There were found 5 stones with ancient Turkic inscriptions. And in 1940 in East Turkestan were found well-preserved 4 manuscripts of the ancient Turkic writing of the middle of the VIII century. These findings were of great scientific importance.
Arabic script was used in Central Asia and Kazakhstan in the spiritual and secular schools, in official correspondence. Columns, cornices, domes of buildings and structures were decorated with its beautiful ornament. Scientists and poets wrote their works in Arabic, decorating their pages with drawings executed often at a high artistic level. All the works of the outstanding thinkers of the East are written in Arabic and Farsi (Persian), because these languages were considered international.
In Kazakhstan, Arabic graphics were used for 900 years from the 10th to the 20th century. In 1912, Akhmet Baytursynov reformed the Kazakh script on the basis of Arabic graphics, making it possible to use it to millions of Kazakhs living abroad. He excluded all the purely Arabic letters not used in the Kazakh language, and added letters specific to the Kazakh language. The new alphabet, called "Zhana Yemle" ("New Spelling"), is still used by Kazakhs living in China, Afghanistan, and Iran. After 1917, the movement for the transition to the Latin alphabet began in Kazakhstan. The Arab letter, which in its time played a positive role in social development, now seemed to be a brake on historical progress.
Ybyrai Altynsarin entered the history of public thought and literature of Kazakhstan as a remarkable educator, writer, folklorist and ethnographer
The ideas of enlightenment in the 16th century were the most urgent in the spiritual sphere in many countries of the world. Enlighteners, defending the freedom of the people and man, placed all hopes on peaceful transformations. They believed that the existing social inequality came from the irrationality, ignorance of people. Therefore, the main goal of the Enlightenment announced the enlightenment of the people. After all, they, in their opinion, by their unreasonableness accepted the existing order.
A beneficial effect on the spiritual life of the Kazakh people was the spread of democratic Russian culture and social thought. Under its influence, the world outlook of the outstanding Kazakh enlighteners Chokan Valikhanov, Ybyrai Altynsarin, Abai Kunanbayev was formed. All their activities and creativity vividly testified to the progressive nature of Kazakhstan's accession to Russia, the traditional and indissoluble friendship of the Kazakhs and Russians, which developed in addition to the will of tsarism.
The Kazakh people's great desire for knowledge and culture was clearly expressed by these remarkable representatives. In familiarizing the Kazakhs with advanced culture, they saw the only sure way out of the medieval darkness in which society was. Ybyrai Altynsarin, a prominent Kazakh educator, is widely known in the history of public thought, culture and literature of the Kazakh people as an outstanding pedagogue and innovator of new schools, ethnographer, folklorist, poet, prose writer and translator of Russian classics.
Ybyrai Altynsarin was born on October 20 (November 1) in 1841 in the Arakaragai Volost (now the Altynsarin district of the Kostanay region). His father Altynsary Balgozhin died when Ybyrai was not even four years old. The boy was brought up in the house of his grandfather, the famous biy Balgozha Zhanburchin. Balgozha at that time was one of the most authoritative biys in the entire Middle Horde and enjoyed great influence among the ruling elite of the Kazakh society.
In 1850, when Ybyrai turned 9 years old, in Orenburg, the administrative center of the Turgai region, the first special school for Kazakh children was opened, where Balgozha gave his grandson. Gifted, lively and diligent, he from the very first days of school life stood out among his peers. Teachers immediately drew attention to the gifted boy, who diligently perceived everything that they explained, deeply delving into each subject studied. Ybyrai quickly and well mastered the Russian language, the study of which paid special attention.
In 1857, Ybyrai Altynsarin graduated from high school and received a commendable response as the best student. In the distribution he was left as interpreter of the Orenburg province Administration. The next two years Altynsarin perseveres independently, significantly deepening his knowledge in the field of Russian literature. He studies the history of his people.